Magic is what makes fantasy what it is. Humanoid magic users are going to use spells. How you approach it can help set the idea of how magic works in your universe. There is one that is a constant though focus is required of the caster.
J.K. Rowling and Tolkien both use focus objects in the form of rods or wands. The Sorcerer’s Apprentice (movie) they require rings. Using a focus object can create a conduit for magic creating accuracy and strength in their magic.
Abra Kadabra! Whether or not you’ve attended a magic show, you’ve heard this phrase. It’s a phrases like this that help the magic use focus and create their spells. They also are attached to proverbs like “be careful what you wish for” and “choose your words wisely.” As your magic user is stating an intent, it’s out there and can be created.
This is a form of magic that takes a lot of time and effort to do, and is usually seen being done by the villain of a story as it allows the heroes time to foil it. For a basic idea on how to perform a ritual, so you can write it, check out Issue 120 of Circle Magazine where the entire theme is rituals both solitary and groups.
Though not all magic needs to have a focus. Sometimes your magic user is powerful enough to need none of these.
Have I missed something about magic spells? Let me know your thoughts down below!