Subjects and Verbs

So for the month of June I decided to go over one of the most difficult topics for me. Grammar. Even though I love editing, I am horrible with the one thing that helps keep the stories flowing. What I’m hoping to accomplish is for both you and I to get a better understanding of how grammar works and why it is necessary.

Subjects And Verbs

To start off our theme of Grammar, we are going to cover the two basic components of every sentence the subject and the verb. Though the only exception of a sentence using a subject and a verb is the interjection, which we will cover in a later post this month.

Subjects

In a sentence, the subject is the object in which the verb is being acted upon. For the most part, subjects are comprised of either nouns and pronouns.

Nouns, as we all know, are the names we use for a person, place, thing, idea, or even a state of being. So I would guess that would include solid as a noun? Maybe I need to work on a deeper breakdown here.

There are five types of regular nouns:

1) Common nouns cover class or type of the subject. This usually covers general nouns like bug, or cat.

2) Proper nouns are specific names for the subject. For example, your name is a proper noun. Or even a nickname you have for your sibling.

Aww they're using proper nouns!

3) Collective nouns are the group names we use to distinguish a set of things. To put into modern perspectives, the name of your fandom is a collective noun. So if you belong to the fandoms that love Doctor Who, Sherlock, and Supernatural you are called a SuperWhoLockian. But if you are like me and just belong to the Supernatural Fandom, you are just a Hunter.

4) Mass nouns are nouns that are in-numerable to the point where they don’t have a plural form. I don’t have an example for this because I have yet to see one. [So please if you know of a noun that doesn’t have a plural form, please put it in the comments!]

5) Finally we have the compound noun which is the Frankenstein’s Monster of nouns because it is comprised of multiple nouns. Though not all combinations of nouns will work.

Pronouns are a little different as they are the bait and switch of subjects since they are the words we use to keep us from wearing out the normal nouns. The most important thing to remember about pronouns is the fact that you need to use a normal noun previously in order for it to make sense. Essentially you need a bait to switch. This is called an antecedent, and you have to make sure it matches in number (meaning it needs to be plural or singular  to match the pronoun).

There are seven types of pronouns to choose from:

1) Personal pronouns refers to the speaker or audience of a sentence. This is the type of pronoun used for referring to proper and collective nouns. Something to remember with personal pronouns is the the fact that it is dependent upon the point of view you are using for your subject.

2) Intensive pronouns are used to add an emphasis and are usually found with the suffix of -self or -selves attached to the ends.

3) Reflexive pronouns are the clues used to show that the subject is the receiver of the verb. Like its’ opposite, the intensive pronoun, it is seen with the suffixes of -self or -selves.

4) Relative pronouns are used for collective nouns, the same way that personal pronouns are used for proper nouns. They are used in reference to the previously used collective noun and should also be similar in number.

5) Demonstrative pronouns are the bright flashing neon sign that points out the noun in a sentence. The cool thing about a demonstrative pronoun is that you can place it either before or after an antecedent, you don’t have to wait until later to use it.

Now the next two are the exceptions to the antecedent rule.

6) Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions of the subject. So questions like “Who?” or “What?” are interrogative pronouns.

7) Indefinite pronouns are used to replace all forms of nouns and also is without need of an antecedent. It’s mainly the go to pronoun if you don’t know what noun you are going to be using at first.

The funny thing about pronouns, though, is the fact that in order for it to be considered a subject it has to be in a form called nominative case. The two types of nominative case that work for to be a subject are appositive case where it identifies it as the subject, and predicative case where it links the pronoun to the verb.

Verbs

Verbs are used to express action, an occurrence, or a state of being. Wait….so you mean that being a solid is both a noun and a verb?!

Even Demon Dean is confused by this!

And now you see why I have such trouble with grammar.

The main component about verbs you should remember is the fact that a verb is the action that is either carried out by, or performed by the subject of a sentence. But wait! Verbs are going to get even more confusing!

There are three main types of verbs: Action verbs, Copula (Linking) verbs, and Auxiliary (Helping) verbs.

Action verbs are the mental and physical actions that are being done by or to the subject. Funny thing is, you can break this down into three different forms of action verbs, mainly with the question of if you have a direct object to deal with. You have transitive, which involves an object. Then you have intransitive that doesn’t need an object. Finally you have ergative form which can be done with or without a direct object. It’s the taco girl of action verb forms.

Copula verbs are linking verbs and they describe an occurrence or a state of being. Normally it will be a representation of the senses. They are also usually followed by a subject complement, therefore describing the subject as well as its’ action.

Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs for a reason. They are great for assisting in the creation of a verb phrase. The most useful type of auxiliary verb is the modal verb. It is the type of verb that expresses so many things, like possibility, intention, permission, and ability.

Now here is where it gets really funny. Verb forms are things that exist.

The main form of verbs we come across are the infinitive basic form which is seen as the equation of [to + verb]. This normally doesn’t have to have a tense attached to it but it is recommended to accommodate the tense you are in writing in.

The more advanced form of the infinitive form is the perfect infinitive. Though it is similar to the basic form, this type of verb form uses to have as part of its’ formula and instead of just any verb you have to use the past participle form of it. But it is supposed to be performed at a later date. With that in mind….

The past participle form is used with and auxiliary verb (which can be modal) to create a perfect tense, and because it is involving the past, the verb will have to take place at a previous date.

So really its’: [to have + {auxiliary verb from the past}] = Perfect Infinitive = Verb takes place in the future.

Okay so grammar is really difficult. 😦 My head is beginning to feel pain.

Finally the form I do understand is the present participle. It is the verb that is a continuous action, or a current action, and has the suffix of -ing attached.

 

I don’t know about you, but that is enough grammar for me today. x_X My brain feels pretty broken now.

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